Sunday, December 06, 2009

Discovering a Biblical Theology of an Idea, Word, or Theme

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Biblical theology traces an idea, word, or theme in a biblical book, author, genre, testament, or the entire Bible. While the process can be long and involved and requires careful thought, the steps are quite simple.

  1. Determine the idea, word, or theme to be studied. In this example, I will use the word "heart" (Gk. kardia) in Matthew's Gospel. You can use the search tool at I used it, chose "interlinear" in the sidebar, and clicked "kardia" to fine all the uses of kardia in Matthew.
  2. Next, read each verse in its paragraph (!!!) and determine what this particular verse says about the idea, word, or theme. Make brief notes.
    • Matthew 5:8 can be pure; related to the perception of God
    • Matthew 5:28 can sin
    • Matthew 6:21 intention revealed in use of treasure
    • Matthew 9:4 related to response; ca do evel/good
    • Matthew 11:29 can be humble
    • Matthew 12:34 source of speech content; evidence of character
    • Matthew 12:40 interior
    • Matthew 13:15 related to understanding
    • Matthew 13:19 can have content stolen by evil one
    • Matthew 15:8 can be communal (had by a community); determines intention
    • Matthew 15:18-19 source of speech content/behavior
    • Matthew 18:35 location of true forgiveness of others
    • Matthew 22:37 able to love
    • Matthew 24:48 source of decisions/behavior
  3. Spend time reading over your notes. Look for the structure of the concepts, write the key concepts in bullet form, and cite the appropriate passages.
    • moral component, 5:8; 5:28; 9:4; 11:29
    • cognitive component, 5:8; 13:15
    • volitive component, 6:21; 9:4; 15:8; 15:18-19; 18:35; 22:37; 24:48
    • character component, 12:34-35; 15:18-19
    • vulnerable to evil, 13:19
  4. Read through the passages in their groupings and create a full sentence outline of the biblical theology.
    • The heart is the location of our moral decision-making (5:8; 5:28; 9:4; 11:29).
    • The heart is the gatekeeper and ultimate means of understanding (5:8; 13:15).
    • The heart decides our thoughts, motivations, and behaviors (6:21; 9:4; 15:8; 15:18-19; 18:35; 22:37; 24:48).
    • The heart is the reservoir of character (12:34-35; 15:18-19).
    • The heart is vulnerable to evil attack (13:19).
  5. You now have a biblical theology of the idea, word, or theme you have studied.
  6. Now, venture out on your own and trace heart in Mark's Gospel. If you would like, post your results in the comments.

Tuesday, December 01, 2009

The Passionate Pursuit of Christ Produces Spiritual Growth

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Claim: Spiritual growth is the fruit of our passionate pursuit of Christ.

Note the following verses (emphasis mine).

I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. (John 15:5 ESV)

Likewise, my brothers, you also have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead, in order that we may bear fruit for God. (Rom 7:4 ESV)

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. (Gal 5:22-24 ESV)

And so, from the day we heard, we have not ceased to pray for you, asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, so as to walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God. (Col 1:9-10 ESV)

In each case, fruit results from connection with Christ. This is not to say we sit idle while Jesus does all the work, for this is not the case. As Paul says in Philippians 2:12, we are to work out the salvation that God has put in. But, working out our salvation--producing fruit--cannot occur by our own effort alone:, for as Jesus said, “apart from me you can do nothing.”

Our motto for this past year has been, "Passionately pursuing spiritual growth in Christ." It is a very good motto and the programs flowing from that motto have encouraged many at TFB to begin bible reading and reflection they may not have practiced regularly before.

As we prepare for 2010, might I suggest we think about the true means to spiritual growth? You see, bible reading and reflection is good and necessary, but it is not enough. If we read the Bible and reflect on it regularly, but do so to "make ourselves holy" or "fulfill duty" then we have missed the point. The point of Bible reading and reflection is connecting with, trusting, and obeying Jesus.

In 2010, let us gather in small groups and large, thinking and praying together, figuring out how to pursue Christ, and deciding to trust and obey him with passion and persistence.

The fruit will, I am certain, astound us.

Sunday, November 01, 2009

Must Christian Fellowship be Face-to-Face?

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

These gatherings are important, but insufficient. The relative infrequency allows for too much life apart. Our conversations, though they are many, are insufficient to carry our stories. Time and geography hinder more frequent gatherings.

What should we do?

Connecting in the New Testament

The New Testament (NT) describes many ways of connecting with other believers. Believers gathered face-to-face (Rom 16:5; 1 Cor 16:19; Col 4:15) and connected through letters (2 Cor 13:10; Phil 3:1; Col 4:18) and intercessory prayer (Rom 1:8-15; Phil 1:3-11). Whether in the same house church or across the Mediterranean Sea, the soul-to-soul connections were very real.

Soul-to-soul connections are important, but because we have bodies, face-to-face connections are primary. Just as NT Christians gathered in homes (Rom 16:5) and temple porches (Acts 2:46), so Christians today gather in worship centers, Sunday school rooms, and living rooms. Such face-to-face participation is necessary for the spiritual growth of the community (Eph 4:15-16).

But what about connections that are not face-to-face? Are texting, email, Facebook, and Twitter valid ways to connect with fellow believers?

Connecting Soul-to-Soul

We are physical, but we are also spiritual. We see glimmers of this when we sit in a crowded room of strangers, talking with a friend on the phone: the connection with the strangers is likely minimal, while the connection with the friend is stronger. Another hint is seen in the story of Jesus’ transfiguration (Matt 17): somehow, the three disciples knew Moses and Elijah, presumably without ever having seen them before: they knew their souls. Soul-to-soul connections are real and valuable.

So, we are left with a question: What should non face-to-face connection look like?

Thursday, October 01, 2009

Prayer for the Infirm and Lonely

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.
Previously published on Laura’s Writings

Theology is more than ideas; it is also life and, sometimes, life is difficult. Theology has something to say, and so, I offer this prayer.


all in existence depends on you.

I ask you to give health to those

who suffer the body's rebellion.

I thank you for wisdom,

gained over centuries and across cultures,

working within your created systems,

to bring health, sufficient

not only for daily tasks,

but also for periodic enjoyment of your bounty.


we, your people, walk together toward you.

I ask you to grow hospitality in these,

who suffer the soul's unwilling disconnection.

I thank you for humanity's relational nature,

yearning for the other,

building neighborhoods wherever we give love,

forming community

shoulder to shoulder

and heart to heart.


you give deep purpose to our ordinary lives.

I ask that you use these

your infirm and lonely ones.

I thank you for the wealth of possibilities,

worked out in every facet of life,

giving back our skills and capacities

as offerings to you

as we serve and guard nature

and walk and work with one another.

Tuesday, September 01, 2009

Training as Christians in Ordinary Life

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

In vocational training, the most effective programs use the movements and activities of the intended vocation. This is why apprenticeship and internship remain required elements in courses of study like psychology and business. I am beginning to realize that Christian training has much in common with vocational training.

What does this mean for the educational practices of the gathered Body?

Some insight can be gained from the educational notion of praxis. In praxis, practice and theory are interwoven, each intentionally informing the other. Practice expresses underlying theory and we use known theory to reflect on these underlying theories in order to correct and improve both the theories and the practices based upon them.

When properly administered, apprenticeship and internship programs are applications of praxis, guiding the learner in intentional reflection on both theory and practice. Two related goals are in mind: proper theory and proper practice. Both are necessary.

In many discipleship programs, the notion of praxis is nowhere to be found–unless our intended vocation is small group participant or some such. On the other hand, if our intended vocation is a life well-lived, expressing our passions and cultural language and moving toward the twin goals of Christlikeness and proper image-bearing, then most of our discipleship programs need to be scrapped and regrown from the ground up. And the ground from which they must be regrown is not the classroom; it is the dining room, the morning commute, our daily chores, and the work day.

Now, I am a fan of the classroom and small group Bible study and I think they have an important place in our practice. I’ve neither desire nor inclination to throw out the proverbial baby with the bath water. But let us keep one thing clear in our minds: classroom instruction and group Bible study are not Christian training. The car ride home probably is.

What might this look like in a real life gathering of Christians?

Wednesday, July 01, 2009

Theology--Getting to Know the One We Love

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Theology is the framework of our understanding of God and his ways upon which we are able to design a godly life as persons and as community.

Often theology is considered about as interesting as eating sawdust or watching grass grow—and just about as useful. Both perspectives could not be further from the truth, for theology, in its most basic form, is simply what we believe about God and his ways. It ranges from the simple yet profound lyrics of “Jesus Loves Me” to the complex multi-volume Church Dogmatics of German theologian Karl Barth. It has a place in the seminary, but it also has a place in the Little Lambs Sunday School class.

Now, just so we are clear, theology is not the foundation of our faith; our faith is founded on a person: Jesus Christ. Rather, we might think of theology as an adjustable, yet stable framework on which to design a godly life as persons and as community. Stability comes from two sources: the framework is firmly attached to the ground and it is secure, such that adjustment requires effort. It is not adjusted on a whim.

How does this apply to theology? Theology is an adjustable, yet stable set of ideas about God and his ways, firmly attached to Jesus Christ. While Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and forever, our theological understandings are subject to correction. The theological thinking of the larger church is an excellent resource for adjusting our own theology, for the thoughtful, reasoned correction of hundreds of years has produced a stable framework (see below for some resources).

Each of us and all of us together has a theological framework, for we all have understandings about God and his ways. The unfortunate truth is that many of us have thoughtlessly built our framework and it does not correspond to the way things actually are. Often we do not even know what sort of framework it is, for we have not thoughtfully considered our beliefs.

If we truly love God, we will want to know about him, just as when we love a human, we want to know about that person [1]. If we love God, we will thirst for knowledge about him and the knowledge for which we thirst is theology.

Do you thirst for the knowledge of God? If not, ask God to make you thirsty. If you are thirsty, what are you doing to satisfy that thirst?

Further Reading in Theology (available in the Sanctify library; see Laura)
Bitesize Theology, by Peter Jeffrey
5 Minute Theologian, by Rick Cornish

[1] Idea courtesy of John Mark Reynolds, "The Glory of Jesus Christ: The Way Forward in the Dialogue Between Religion and Science," The Norton Lectures at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, March 18, 2009.

Monday, June 01, 2009

Justice: Obligation and Motivation within Appropriate Boundaries

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Why do we have an obligation to do justice? We have an obligation to do justice because God is just. As God's creation and as his people, we are obligated to do justice.

What are the boundaries of justice? As the people of God, there are limits to how we ought to do justice. We cannot choose to do justice however we please; rather, we are constrained by the bounds of loving God and others. For example, as we look out in our comm8unity of Torrance, there are justice organizations and institutions with which we might engage. The decision whether and how to involve ourselves is bounded by the limits of God's law of love. As a community of God's people we must sit together and work out and probably struggle through, what the boundaries are and what activities are outside those boundaries.

What is our motivation to do justice? The first motivation is heart. As followers of Jesus, as the people of God our hearts are to run headlong toward God and his desires. God is a God of justice. Evil will be punished; it will be removed. The subjugation of evil is a divine human task (Gen 1:26-28).

The second motivation is the fact that God has placed us here in Torrance. This place, where he has put us, must be our primary mission focus, for all other mission flows out of where we are.This does not mean we set aside foreign or short term mission. It does mean that if we are not subduing evil and proclaiming God where we are, then something is desperately wrong. If we are not fighting for people, speaking wisdom to them, caring for them where we are in Torrance then we have no business going elsewhere. The commitment to do justice and be missional ought to shape how our time and resources are invested. Here, in our ordinary day to day lives, as we live in our neighborhoods, shop at grocery stores, dine in restaurants, and go bowling, the justice of God must be done and the good news of Jesus must be proclaimed.

He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God? Micah 6:8 esv

But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. Acts 1:8 esv

Wednesday, May 20, 2009

Who Wrote the First Five Books of the Old Testament?

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

The first five books of the Old Testament, also known as the Pentateuch or Torah, are foundational to the entire Bible. The rest of the Old Testament and the New Testament unpack and bring to completion the basic truths God revealed there. The Torah's foundational nature makes its reliability of critical importance; authorship is key to reliability.

Two theories are most common. Some scholars believe various persons compiled the Torah from various sources from the mid-900s BC through the mid 400s BC. This theory is called the Documentary Hypothesis; it suggests four sources, each having its own characteristics. There is little agreement on exactly which portions of the Torah come from which sources.

Other scholars believe Moses wrote the Torah in the mid-1400s BC, using written and oral source materials; I hold this position. What follows is a short argument for Mosaic authorship, summarized from The Pentateuch as Narrative, by John H. Sailhamer, "An Introduction to the Pentateuch," by David Malick, and "Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch" (

  • The Torah itself is anonymous; the collection never states the author's name.
  • The Torah itself, and the Old and New Testaments claim Moses as the author.
    • Torah Evidence: 17:14; Ex 24:7; 24:27-28; 25:16, 21-22; Num 33:2; Deut 28:58; 29:20, 21, 27, 29; 20:10, 11
    • Old Testament evidence:Joshua 1:7-8; 8:32, 34; 22:5; 1 Ki 2:3; 2 Ki 14:6; 21:8; Ezra 6:18; Dan 9:11-13; Mal 4:4
    • New Testament evidence: Matt 19:18; Mark 12:26; Luke 2:22; 16:29; 24:27; John 5:46-47; 7:19; Acts 13:39; Rom 10:5
  • Moses used various sources when he wrote the Torah, much like a historian does today. This is very similar to the method Luke used when he wrote Luke-Acts (see Luke 1:1-4 and Acts 1:1-3).
  • Despite the differences in style coming from the various sources Moses used, the Torah has an essential unity, revealed in the strategic placement of story sections, genealogies, and law sections throughout the collection. If you would like to know more about this strategy, I highly recommend Sailhamer's book.

Why is this important?
  • The Torah is foundational to the entire bible; its reliability is critical.
  • The Old Testament testifies that Moses is the author.
  • The New Testament testifies that Moses is the author.
  • Jesus testifies that Moses is the author.
  • Therefore, the authorship of the Torah is tied to the reliability of the Bible.


Friday, May 01, 2009

Seeing God's Justice in his Promises

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Throughout the Old Testament and into the New, God has been making covenants with his people. Three important covenants are the Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Davidic. These three covenants also illustrate two important types of covenant: the if-then covenant and the I-will covenant. Covenants are like contractual promises, with if-then covenants requiring promises from both parties and I-will covenants requiring promises from only one party.

In Deuteronomy (the last book of Moses), God made two distinct and opposing if-then promises to the children of Israel. The first is that if they would obey and trust him, they would live in the land and he would bless them. The second and opposite, is if they did not trust and obey, they would no longer live in the land and he would discipline them (Deut 30). These two if-then promises are part of the Mosaic Covenant.

If we follow the nation of Israel through its various kings and after it split into two nations, we see hundreds of years of choosing, ending with both kingdoms choosing to trust themselves and seek after other gods. As a result, God sent Assyria in 722 BC to take the Northern Kingdom of Israel out of the land and he sent Babylon in 586 BC to take the Southern Kingdom of Judah out of the land. God kept his promise.

Unlike the Mosaic covenant, the Abrahamic (Gen 12, 15, 17 ) and Davidic (2 Sam 7 ) covenants are I-will covenants. God promised Abraham that he would have land, seed, and blessing, and that all nations would be blessed through him. God promised David that he would always have a man on the throne.

We see these covenants working especially clearly in the divided kingdom and the discipline that resulted from the nation's faithless disobedience. Even as God disciplined the Northern Kingdom using Assyria and the Southern Kingdom using Babylon, he revealed, through his prophets a bit of how the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants would bear out.

The prophets during this time of turmoil also revealed how God's coming Messiah would bless all nations (Isa 9:1-2; Matt 4:12-17 ) and would be King of Israel (Mic 5:2; Matt 2:1-6 ), fulfilling the promises of the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants.

Another outcome of the I-will covenants is the fulfillment of the Mosaic covenant in the New Covenant. In Jeremiah 31 , we see God lifting the cover and revealing this new covenant. There God says that he would write his law on their hearts and that they would no longer need to exhort one another, for all would know Yahweh. This new covenant is the covenant that Jesus announced at the last supper when he said, "This is the cup of the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:20).

Why are we rehearsing the covenantal history of Israel in an academy about justice?

Let us look at the Mosaic covenant: if Israel would trust and obey, God would bless; if they did not trust and obey, he would discipline. In his blessing and disciplining, God acted in accordance with his own law. Even his own people, chosen for his own sake, are subject to the law and to the punishments incurred by breaking it and the blessing received by keeping it.

God's justice is seen further in his punishment of Assyria and Babylon. Assyria, which was the absolute power of the world, was toppled by its vassal state, Babylon. Babylon, which was the world power after Assyria, was toppled by Media-Persia. Both of these countries, Assyria and Babylon, flouted God's law. God had used them to accomplish his goals in disciplining his people, but they did it for their own evil purposes; therefore, they were punished.

Israel also flouted God's law and was disciplined severely. But there was a difference between God's punishment of Assyria and Babylon and his discipline of Israel and Judah, for in addition to the if-then promises of the Mosaic law, God had made I-will promises in the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants. These I-will promises were not dependent on Israel's covenant-keeping, for when God keeps his covenants, he displays his justice. God, in his justice, aligns himself with his own promises and keeps them, even when his people are disciplined.

In the coming of Messiah Jesus, in his eventual return, and in the full establishment of the kingdom, God's righteousness and fairness are born out. We, who are Gentiles, receive this blessing through Abraham's seed. We are the ones to whom the blessing through Abraham comes: through the Seed that is Messiah all of the promises of God become Yes. God's justice is born out in punishing the wicked, in disciplining the disobedient, and in blessing all who trust him.

Thursday, March 19, 2009

Infinity: God’s Radical Freedom

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Infinity – n. Unbounded space, time, or quantity.
[immutability. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. (accessed: March 02, 2009).]

Being a Fully Devoted Follower of a Radically Free God

In his book, Living Jesus, Luke Timothy Johnson discusses a proposition of great consequence: Jesus is alive rather than dead and this determines what it means to follow him.
Being the disciple of a dead person is fairly straight forward: you read their ideas and their history and you model your life after theirs. It may take a while and it will require work, but the goal is static and the expectations are stable.

Being the disciple of a living person is radically different, for just when you think you understand him, he moves: he is not where you thought he was or he wants you to do something that is outside your box.

Being a fully devoted follower of Christ is being the follower of a living person. Because of this, we must not and cannot stop at mere conformity to our current understanding of Jesus, for as a living person, he keeps moving.

As a living person, Jesus is dynamic; as a divine person, he is radically so. As we saw in the article on Aseity, God is self-existent. Unlike every other being, he is radically free: he has the ability to do whatever he wills. The only restraints upon God are self-imposed; nothing else and no one else can apply any restraint.

These past weeks, Pastor Charlie has been teaching from the account of Jesus walking on the water. There is no way in all of the disciples' knowledge and experience that they would have ever thought he would come walking the water. Yet, when he revealed himself, Peter's response shows that even with his tiny trust, he understood that Jesus is radically free: if Jesus decides that Peter should walk on the water, then Peter could walk on the water. And he did.

Just when you think you know where he is and what he is going to do, he moves. This is why following Jesus requires more than careful bible study and regular church attendance. It also requires walking with your brothers and sisters, hearing their perspective. It requires reading Christian writings from other eras and traditions, hearing what they have to say, evaluating it by the gospel, and accepting what passes muster--even if it clashes with what you believe. It requires silencing your heart long enough to hear what the Spirit is saying now.

Because Jesus is a living person, our individual understanding of him is necessarily partial. Our understanding becomes increasingly complete in a community where each and all are in hard pursuit of the God who is radically free and who leads us in ways we never thought possible or even likely.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Immutability: God’s Unchangeableness

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Immutability – adj. Not subject or susceptible to change.
[immutability. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. (accessed: February 02, 2009).]

God does not change in his being, attributes, purposes, or understandings. This does not mean he is rigid and unemotional, for a quick read through the stories of the Old Testament shows that God is responsive and moved by emotion. So, what does this mean?

While God sometimes changes his short term acts (Exodus 32:11-14; Jonah 3:10), he always keeps his promises (Numbers 23:19) and his intentions stand forever (Psalm 33:11). Though creation changes and decays, God does not change; he remains forever (Psalm 102:26-27). Because God keeps his promise to bless and keep his people, they are not cast aside when they sin (Malachi 3:6). He reassures his people by basing his unchangeable promises on his unchangeable self (Hebrews 6:13-18). God's unchangeable goodness is the source of all goodness (James 1:17).

Those who have trusted Christ can be assured of God's unchanging, steadfast love. Unfortunately, the reverse is also true: those who have not trusted, have no assurance and no hope apart from Christ. In this, God is also unchangeable (John 14:6).

Who are you trusting?

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Glory--God's Splendor and Radiance

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Key Ideas from

"Glory of God"
Kregel Dictionary of the Bible and Theology
by Henry W. Holloman
(C) 2005 Kregel Publications

  • God's glory is the splendor and radiance of all he is and all he does. His glory is the only true glory; all else is derivative.
  • We reflect God's glory back to him in our praise and thanks. To refuse or neglect to do so is sin. To reflect his glory in honor of another is idolatry.
  • Everything in existence naturally reflects God's glory. Persons who willfully refuse to do so are judged.
  • God's glory is reflected in all he has done, said, and made.
  • God revealed his glory through his people Israel and, for the sake of his glory revealed in them, he keeps his covenant with them.
  • God's glory is most clearly revealed in the life, death, resurrection, enthronement, and return of Jesus, the Son of God.
  • God's people bring him glory through words and actions of praise, honor, and worship.
  • Humans were created to give God glory.

Monday, January 19, 2009

Aseity: God’s Independence

by Laura Springer, M.Div., Th.M.

Aseity –noun Metaphysics. existence originating from and having no source other than itself.
[aseity. Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. (accessed: January 02, 2009).]

God is self-existent; he depends on nothing and no one for his existence. This is what Jesus meant when he said that the Father has life in himself (John 5:26). God also made this claim when he told Moses his name: I AM WHO I AM (Exodus 3:14).

God's decisions and actions are his alone; no other being can influence or change them apart from God's own choice (Psalm 115:3). Nothing and no one can be compared to God, for he is the only self-existent one. There is none like him (Isaiah 40:13). In a speech given after God chastised his arrogance, Nebuchadnezzar proclaimed that God alone can do whatever he wills and that no one can question him (Daniel 4:35).

At the end of the theological section in his letter to the Romans, the Apostle Paul proclaims God's ways as wholly independent, basing this proclamation on the utter dependence on him of everything in existence (Romans 11:33-36). Paul spoke similarly in his speech to the Greek philosophers on Mars Hill in Athens (Acts 17:25). In his record of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, the Apostle John writes down the song of the elders, proclaiming God's independence and our utter dependence.

"Worthy are you, our Lord and God,
to receive glory and honor and power,
for you created all things,
and by your will they existed and were created."
(Revelation 4:11 ESV)

Some will respond to God's aseity with rebellious posturing, while others will respond with humility and passionate worship.

How will you respond?